French/Dutch School 17th Century – Entrance to Port Livorno, Italy

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Black chalk, pen, brown ink, and brown wash on laid paper. The paper has been joined from two sections and is watermarked with an anchor, circle, and cross; Italian Milan c1600 (see Biquet 8941). On the reverse side, there is an additional drawing of buildings (possible buildings from the City of Livorno). Inscribed recto: Entrees de Licourne Claude Lorin. Indistinctly inscribed verso with collectors name and date for Paris 1815. Also, an indistinct inscription written in ink to the right margin reads; ‘X al fore della Casa del barone del passaniti, anticamente chiamar Lo Steri’. Mounted onto museum quality cotton rag board.


The city of Livorno flourished under the Medici family, who turned it into a flourishing port. In the late 16th century Livorno was officially given the status of a city and the architect Bernardo Buontalenti designed the city as an ‘ideal town’ with a population of 20,000 and a port that could hold 300 ships.

At the end of the 16th century, Ferdinand I made an offer to merchants from all over the World. Ferdinand invited them to live and work in Livorno, offering special privileges and other incentives to do so. The largest group of people to move were Jewish, but there were also Spaniards, Russians, Muslims, English, French, Dutch, Greek, Portuguese, and many more.

Additional information

Port Livorno

Sheet: 7 7/16 in x 11 1/4 in. (18.9 cm x 28.7 cm.) Mount: 14 in x 17 1/2 in. (35.5 cm x 44.4 cm.)


Unidentified / Unknown Artist